MILITARY PROPAGANDA WW1
MILITARY PROPAGANDA WW2
MILITARY PROPAGANDA OTHER WARS
L'ASSIETTE AU BEURRE
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Parlons Francais (Paul Iribe, Libraire Floury, Paris, 1934)
Paul Iribe (French, 1883-1935) was a prolific illustrator contributing to 'L'Assiette au Beurre', 'La Baionnette', and also producing his own magazines, 'Le Mot' (1914-1915) and 'Le Temoin' (1933-1935). His images are particularly vicious especially regards the Kaiser. It is from 'Le Temoin' that 'Parlons Francais' is drawn from. He is most famous for his later career in fashion drawings.
Let Cowards Flinch (Sagittarius, illustrated by Vicky, Turnstile Press, London, 1947)
Satire on the coming of power by the Labour Party in 1945; a so called English Revolution. Illustrations by Victor Weisz or Vicky (1913-1966), a german, who contributed to the 'News Chronicle' and others.
Die Juden in der Karikatur (Eduard Fuchs, Albert Langen, Munich, 1921)
The Psalms For Modern Life (Arthur Wragg, Selwyn & Blount, London, 1933)
Arthur Wragg (1903-1976) was a British illustrator who used biblical texts, combined with his epic images, for a political purpose. He was a socialist, pacifist and a strongly religious individual. He contributed work to left-wing newspapers such as the 'Tribune' and illustrations for pamphlets about Christian socialism, pacifism and social justice. He also contributed to the antimilitarist newspaper 'Peace News' in the 1930s and during World War Two he was a conscientious objector.
The main themes he addressed in his books are those of social injustice and spiritual emptiness. He attacks abuses of power by politicians and the influence of the militarists.
Although the religious themes underlining the work may be unsettling for some, it is his quality of artwork and vision which is striking. The illustrations are in pen and ink, usually purely in black and white, and so they resemble woodcuts. This is no accident as the simplified block style and chiaroscuro effects place him alongside the classic woodcut artists.
His books are very polemic in style. The images he creates are shocking, juxtaposing uplifting religious symbols with images of the grinding poverty of the people.
He published many books on these themes; The Psalms For Modern Life (shown below), Jesus Wept (shown Below), Seven Words (shown below), Thy Kingdom Come (shown below) and The Lords Prayer (shown below). He also illustrated many books for other authors.
Jesus Wept: a commentary in black and white on ourselves and the world today (Arthur Wragg, Selwyn & Blount, London, [c1937])
For Wragg biography see above.
Seven Words (Arthur Wragg, Heinemann, London, 1939)
For Wragg biography see above. Shown below is one of the epic images from the book.
Thy Kingdom Come: a prayer in black and white for ourselves and the world today (Arthur Wragg, Selwyn & Blount, London, 1940)
Shown below are dust wrapper cover and book cover. For Wragg biography see above.
The Lord's Prayer In Black And White (Arthur Wragg, Jonathan Cape, London, 1946)
For Wragg biography see above.
Free Trade (British postcard, n.d.)
A great piece of graphic agitation, simple combination of image and text but very effective.
Anti-right wing 1980s
'Blinded by trivia' by Ingram Pinn (first appeared as cover to Labour Research, January 1981) for the Campaign for Press Freedom and published by Leeds Postcards. Reverse text - 'What lies behind the smokescreen? 3 million unemployed. Fight for a press that tells you what's really happening'.
Postcard by Recycled Images, [early 1980s].
Postcard by South Atlantic Souvenirs. Quote from Margaret Thatcher "Rejoice at that news", April 25th 1982. text reads - And here is the news ++ jobless back above 3 million - total may rise for rest of decade etc.' On the reverse the text 'CARELESS TALK COSTS LIVES' and a printed stamp of John Nott?, Secretary of State for Defence from 1981-1983, specifically during the Falklands War.
Leaflet issued by 1st May Bookshop in Edinburgh (1985) gathering support for the miner's strike.
Great Britain, Middlesex, Political and Social Series, Copper London Penny Trade Token 1800, obverse - man's head with possession written on a headband trying to swallow the world with devil in his head gathering up wheat, THE UNCHARITABLE MONOPOLIZER, WILL STARVE THE POOR, TAKE NOT WHAT WAS MADE FOR ALL, MORE WAREHOUSE ROOM WHEAT IS BUT 22 SHILLING A BUSHEL, reverse open hands dropping coins, THE CHARITABLE HAND, COME ALL YE DISTRESSED, WELL DONE. (There is also a later copy made of white metal).
The original Struwwelpeter by Dr Heinrich Hoffman has attracted many variants;
The Political Struwwelpeter (Harold Begbie, illustration F Carruthers Gould, Grant Richards, London, 1899)
Based on the Dr Heinrich Hoffman classic. The illustration were by Francis Carruthers Gould (1844-1925), the first cartoonist on a London newspaper. Also illustrated for the magazine 'Truth', Pall Mall Gazette and Westminster Gazette. Contributed to many books including the Struwwelpeter variants and many others.
The Struwwelpeter Alphabet (Harold Begbie, illustration F Carruthers Gould, Grant Richards, London, 1900)
Published by the same team that did the Political Stuwwelpeter. This time the satire targeted some foreign leaders, i.e. the Kaiser and Paul Kruger.
Swollen-Headed William (after the German!) (EV Lucas, illustrations by George Morrow, Methuen & Co. Ltd, London, 1914)
Illustration in black and white but still very effective.
Der Kriegs-Struwwelpeter. Lustige Bilder und Verse (Karl Ewald Olszewski, Holbein Verlag, Munich, 1915)
The German version.
Struwwelhitler: A Nazi Story Book by Doctor Schrecklichkeit (Robert and Philip Spence, Haycock Press, London, 1941)
Illustrations in colour and an absolute classic example of propaganda. The image shown on the left is the second published edition where Hitler is wearing one armband. In the rarer first edition shown right he is wearing an armband on each arm.
Truffle Eater: Pretty Stories and Funny Pictures (Oistros - Humbert Wolfe, Arthur Baker, London, 1933)
*There are other versions not pictured here: 'Schicklgruber' by Robert Colling-Pyper and Margaret Stavridi (Thacker's Press, Calcutta, 1943), an anti-Richard Nixon and a Punch magazine skit.
MILITARY PROPAGANDA WW1
The Crown Prince's First Lesson Book or Nursery Rhymes for the Times (George H Powell, illustrations Scott Calder, Grant Richards Ltd. London, 1914)
The illustrations are in the form of small woodcuts. They are quite naive but still effective.
Kultur Cartoons (Will Dyson, Stanley Paul & Co., London, 1915)
Will Dyson (1880-1938), an Australian, contributed to the Sydney Bulletin and then worked with the socialist newspaper the 'Daily Herald'. He had a hatred for militarism and this is shown in his particularly vicious cartoons.
The Rubaiyat of William The War-Lord (St John Hamund, illustrations Scott Calder, Grant Richards Ltd. London, 1915)
Published by Grant Richards Ltd. along with the 'The Crown Prince's First Lesson Book or Nursery Rhymes for the Times' (see above). Again the illustrations are in the form of small woodcuts.
The Kaiser's Garland (Edmund J Sullivan, William Heinemann, London, 1915)
Raemaekers' Cartoons Volume 1 (The Land & Water Edition, London, 1916)
Raemaekers' Cartoons Volume 2 (The Land & Water Edition, London, 1916)
There is also a Volume Three but it appears to have been a luxury edition and Raemaeker seems to have largely run out of steam by the quality of them.
Malice In Kulturland (Horace Wyatt, illustrations by W Tell, The Car Illustrated, London, 1914)
The Wipers Times: a facsimile reprint of the trench magazines (Herbert Jenkins Ltd., London, 1918)
A mix of witty editorials, spoof adverts, fake reader's letters and replies, literary and newspaper parodies and poetry. Also contains a few woodcut illustrations.
Mr Punch's History of the Great War (Punch, Cassell & Company, London, 1919)
A classic collection of cartoons from the war years, a definite highpoint for Punch.
Her Privates We (Private 19022[Frederick Manning], Peter Davies, London, 1930)
Front cover illustration not credited unfortunately.
These are two titles for what is essentially the same book. Frederic Manning, who was born in Sydney, Australia, came to Britain and joined the army as a private in the King's Shropshire Light Infantry, serving on the Somme and in Flanders. After the war, he wrote his novel "The Middle Parts of Fortune" and released it in 1929 in a private edition limited to 520 copies. A year later, the book was published in an expurgated version (minus some of the real soldiers' bad language) under the title "The Middle Parts of Fortune" by "Private 19022." Manning's name did not appear on the cover of his book until 1943, eight years after his death. It was not until 1977 that Manning's original text, under its original title, "The Middle Parts of Fortune" was published.
A French World War One magazine which ran from 1915-1918 (225 issues in total). Like L'Assiette Au Beurre each issue was devoted to a different theme but featured many different artists in each issue. It also contained a round-up of the best cartoons from other European countries. Some of the cartoons were of the humorous nature whilst many were particularly vicious and represent some of the best examples of World War One cartoons.
Artists shown below include:
Leonetto Capiello (Italian, late 1870s-1942) is most famous for his posters, paintings and murals yet he also contributed to 'L'Assiette au Beurre', 'Le Rire' and 'La Baionnette'.
Paul Iribe (see biographical information above)
Kaiser-Karnaval (1916), Kamerad (1915), Bouillon De Kultur (1915)
La Paix Allemande (1917), Le Brillant Second (1917), Ils N'Ont Pas Eu Verdun (1916)
Chez Eux (1916), inside illustration to Bouillon De Kultur (1915)
'Danza Macabra Europea'
My favourite set of postcards has to be the set 'Danza Macabra Europea' by Alberto Martini. There were 5 series of the postcards, series I, II, III & V had 12 while series IV had 6) = 54 cards in total. I have managed to get copies of series 1-3 from the websites below and another few from series IV & V, from elsewhere on the web. I am still looking for copies of most of series IV & V, and even some originals would be nice! Alberto Martini was an Italian artist (1876-1954) who also worked for the German magazine 'Jugend' and illustrated many books including those by Edgar Allan Poe. Three shown below.
Edith Cavell - Corbella postcards
A series of six cards by artist Tito Corbella (Italy 1885-1966) on the execution of nurse Edith Cavell. Printed by Inter Art Co., Red Lion Square, London, 1915. Shown below is the best example of the six 'A welcome gift for the Kaiser's birthday'.
Another site (Propaganda Postcards of the Great War) has already scanned all six postcards plus more information -
'The Machine', Italian postcard illustrated by [Atlitto?].
Ludwig Gies (1887-1966) was from Munich and completed several hundred medals and plaquettes.
Two medals are shown below; 'America at War 1914-1917' and 'Die Heldentat Des U.9 1914'. The former shows a gigantic and monstrous creature, wearing Uncle Sam's top hat and laden with guns and money, sailing past the skyscrapers of Manhatten. This medal comments on America's supposed neutrality during the years before the joined the war. The latter the 'heroic' U.9 submarine.
Arnold Zadikow (1884-1943) was a Jewish sculptor who worked in many mediums: silver, stone, glass and metals. He died in 1943 in the Theresienstadt ghetto. I have 7 bronze medals from the WWI period that came from one source: a Jewish family that fled Berlin in 1939 and until now had maintained possession of the medals. Like Ludwig Gies, Zadikow trained in Munich and was a pupil of Heinrich Wadere.
Death as a Scottish soldier charging the battlefield.
Death as a sailor with nets catching boats
Death as a soldier playing a flute
Death as Pied Piper of Hamelin
Frieden (Peace): death drumming up support for war.
Death from the air
Death sitting on canon
Karl Goetz: Lusitania medal
Karl Goetz (1875-1950) was a German medallist and sculptor and completed several hundred medals. Many were commemorative but he did many satirical medals during World War One and are by far his best work The Lusitania medal was originally created by the German medallist, Karl Goetz in 1915 and was later copied by the British for propaganda purposes during World War I.
Walther Eberbach medal
A german medal criticising Britain's relations with the neutral countries during WW1. This medal, along with his dance of death series of medals, were donated and sold by the war effort organization "Freunde der Deutschen Schaumunze" during world war I. The medal has an edge-punch with a "DS" followed by a number.
Naked female figure doublefaced (Personifying England), one side masked, crouched on bow of ship marked U. S. A. ; the latter is surrounded by several other ships, such as "K. Stephen" and "Baralong". She holds a huge standard composed of flags of neutral countries, viz, U. S. A., Holland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. In exergue, "Englische Flaggenehre !" (England's flag of honour). Below,"1914-?". Reverse, border inscribed," Arthur Balfour dem ersten Lord der Gross Britannischen Admiraliteit" (To Arthur Balfour First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain). Below, a cruiser on a calm sea,
MILITARY PROPAGANDA WW2
Adolf in Blunderland : A Political Parody of Lewis Carroll's Famous Story (James Dyrenforth & Max Kester, illustrated by Norman Mansbridge, Frederick Muller, London, 1939)
This parody was first a radio play broadcast in October 1939.
Spirit of the Soviet Union: anti-nazi cartoons and posters (Various artists, preface by Lord Beaverbrook, The Pilot Press, 1942)
This collection of cartoons and posters was presented by Stalin to Lord Beaverbrook on the account of his visit to Moscow in November 1941. Beaverbrook in his Forward makes it clear that this book was produced in order to illustrate the 'credentials' of Russia as an ally in fighting the nazi threat. In the introductions the publishers wished to acknowledge the cooperation of the Ministry of Information Russian Division in the editing and producing of this volume. Artists presented included; Boris Efimov and the Kokriniksi artists.
Jesters In Earnest: cartoons by Czechoslovak Artists (Various artists, forward by David Low, John Murray, London, 1944)
A selection from an exhibition of cartoons by artists, Z.K., Adolf Hoffmeister, Antonin Pelc, Stephen and Walter Trier, which was organised by the Czechoslovak Institute and Nase Noviny (the newspaper of the Czech forces in Great Britain).
Nachtmerrie over Nederland: ein herinnerings album (LJ Jordaan, De Groene Amsterdammer, 1945)
Leo J Jordaan (1885-1980) was a cartoonist who also appeared in newspapers De Ware Jacob, De Nederlandsche Spectator, De Wereld, Het Leven, De Notenkreker, Vrij Nederland and Het Parool. His work for De Groene Amsterdammer started in 1928 and in 1945 this collection 'Nightmare Over Netherlands' was published. When he died his collection was donated to the Atlas van Stolk collection on the history of the Netherlands. They have scanned in an album collection but some examples are shown below.
Lustige Blatter (1939)
Anti-British propaganda from German humour magazine 'Lustige Blatter'.
Picture Post, 9th September 1939 (cover by John Heartfield)
The image is called 'Kaiser Adolf: The Man Against Europe' yet first appeared in the magazine Arbeiter-Illustrierte Zeitung on 21st August 1932 under the title 'His Majesty Adolf - I lead you toward splendid bankruptcies!'. The image was also revised with a map of Europe added to the 'Picture Post' version. Unfortunately there is no credit to Heartfield in the magazine.
Dutch anti-nazi medal
Fought For Freedom 1940 is the legend. No artist signature.
MILITARY PROPAGANDA OTHER WARS
The devil leading Napoleon, who is riding a horse backwards, with the legends: 'Inseparable Friends, To Elba'. Reverse legend: 'We Conquer To Set Free', 'March 31 1814'.
A satirical coins from the Franco-Prussian war. 'NAPOLEON III LE PETIT' (wearing a Prussian pickelhube) with the text N'AYANT PAS LE COURAGE DE MOURIR A LA TETE DE MON ARMEE JE DEMANDE UNE CACHETTE AU ROI DE PRUSSE' and 'VAMPIRE DE LA FRANCE', (an owl rather than an eagle), with the text 'PARIS 2 DEC 1851-SEDAN 2 SEPT. 1870'.
American Civil War
Publication began as early as the mid-1850s and immediately became popular with collectors of propaganda. The envelopes were published in nearly all the major cities, with New York and Boston being the largest producers. There are various styles present; illustrations of flags, war time figures and various other patriotic themes.
Selected examples: The New Zouave Drill, Choke Secession (Three Motions) & The Southern Vulture "hard up".
Le Rire special issue: Kruger le Grand et John Bull le Petit (17th November 1900)
Kruger/Cameronians Regiment (Scottish Rifles) Skit
Defaced South African coin, Kruger wearing a hat and smoking a pipe. The reverse is no longer the arms of South Africa but of the Cameronian Regiment.
Krieg dem Kriege volume 1 (Ernst Friedrich, Freie Jugend, Berlin, 1926)
Krieg dem Kriege volume 2 (Ernst Friedrich, Internationales Anti-Kriegs Museum, Berlin, 1930)
'War Against War' is the classic anti-war polemic conceived by Ernst Friedrich (1894-1967); a lifelong agitator and activist. When World War One broke-out he refused military service. He was institutionalised and later imprisoned. He was involved in left politics and anti-militarist movements and opened the first international Anti-War Museum in Berlin in which he exhibited photographs, documents and testimonials from soldiers. As a result he was imprisoned for high treason for the publication of antimilitarist material and the distribution amongst the army and police. When the Nazis took power in 1933 Friedrich was again imprisoned and the museum destroyed. The Nazis then used the building as a meeting place of the SA and then a torture chamber. Friedrich fled to Belgium and founded another Anti-War Museum but he was forced to flee again in 1940. When the Nazis marched into France he joined the French Resistance and after the war became a French citizen. He opened a centre 'Ile de la Paix' for peace and international understanding. He died in 1967 but an anti-war museum was re-opened (at a different location in Berlin) by Friedrich's family in 1982 and now also comprises a peace art gallery.
The books themselves were first published in 1924. They were designed to have the biggest effect possible so the book text was in four languages (german, english, french and dutch) and the books were 'copy-left' so any progressive movements, trade unions and other groups were encouraged to reprint the text and/or images for their own purposes. The book used shocking photos from the war showing the most brutal images of death and those who had been horribly wounded. The photos were taken from veterans and most probably sources like government reports/medical records. The images were intended to shock but not for sensationalist purposes because the book was designed to be an instructive picture book about the inhumanity of war. The strategy of the book was to place official militarist and patriotic propaganda and juxtapose it with horrific images and ironic and didactic captions. The contrasting of propaganda and reality is a very strong message and it is certainly not glorious to die for one's country. Yet it goes beyond than just being a moralising anti-war book; it places blame for this situation by identifying those political and economic forces which promoted the war. In addition to the main images and captions there is a collection of documents at the beginning of the book. In this Friedrich suggests that our society is organised for war and children are indoctrinated by play, schooling, the church, the state and parents. Our society is obsessed by war and actively promoted by the complex of big business, the state and the military because it serves their interests. The book was the first extensive published collection of the brutal images of war and had a great influence as will be shown below. The book used the power of photography and showed images which were not available through the mainstream press. As World War Two was appearing on the horizon the book became a template for anti-war books (if all different in their political stance) and the power and importance of photography to tell the real truth about wars was secured. The original concept though was never bettered and Friedrich has left us with a classic polemic of image and text, similar to the methods of the master of montage, John Heartfield. Friedrich has not been forgotten though, his insignia of the arms breaking the rifle is still used by pacifist groups all over the world and the book is still in print today published by the new Anti-War Museum. Militant pacifism still has a voice.
Images of Ernst Friedrich, the Anti-War Museum, inside of the museum, the Nazi-takeover and the anti-war insignia
The Horror Of It: Camera Records of War's Gruesome Glories (Arranged by FA Barber, Historic Foundations, Brewer, Warren & Putnam, New York, 1932)
Very similar to 'Krieg dem Kriege' in tone, rhetoric and methods.
Covenants With Death (TA Innes & I Castle, Daily Express Publications, London, 1934)
The Introduction says that the purpose of the book is to 'reveal the horror, suffering and essential bestiality of modern war, and with that revelation, to warn the nation against the peril of foreign entanglements that must lead Britain to a new Armageddon'. This is still an anti-war book that has taken its influence from Ernst Friedrich, and yet while the photographs may be the same, the tone is moralising, patriotic and is not from the left political spectrum.
The First World War: A Photographic History (Edited with captions by Lawrence Stallings, Daily Express Publications, London, 1933)
As with above.
A classic CND publication of 1980 by EP Thompson is titled ‘Protest And Survive’ in response to the HMSO publication ‘Protect And Survive’. And the sequel 'The Defence of Britain' with a brilliant front-page satire of Thatcher. And another anti-nuclear publication, also from 1980, put together by the Edinburgh Books Collective which ran the First of May bookshop in Edinburgh.
2 Peter Kennard photomontage postcards for CND and published by Leeds postcards (1983).
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